Rust Vs Python: A Comparison

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“Rust combines compile-time accuracy with high performance. “

Designed at Mozilla Research by Graydon Hoare, the Rust programming language was introduced in 2010. In 2015, the Rust Project announced its first stable release – Rust 1.0. The multi-paradigm low-level programming language is used for general purposes and focuses on:

  • Security
  • Speed
  • Competetion

According to the Stack Overflow Developer Survey, Rust has been the “most popular programming language” since 2016. According to the 2020 survey, up to 65,000 developers have turned to Rust. Even the Linux kernel developers have offered to write new Linux kernel code in Rust. Developers often compare Rust with the C and C ++ programming languages, as all three are free of crashes and data hops and provide control over the memory lifecycle. In a media interview, founder Graydon Hoare wrote:

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“Rust’s C or C ++ code rewritings can work if there is a sufficient reason and budget and if they are otherwise appropriate to the technical context … The various Firefox modules being rewritten in Rust are an example: -Rust program.

According to the TIOBE index of August 2021, Python is the second most popular programming language in the world. Last year India itself registered 8.2 million developers using Python. In addition, its leadership in data mining and artificial intelligence makes it a privileged choice.

So, does Rust have an advantage over Python?

Rust is known to solve problems that persist in other popular programming languages ​​like Python and C ++ by combining methods from both paradigms. When it comes to Python in particular, here are some key differences:

1 | Garbage collection

One of the biggest advantages of using Rust is that it gives developers the choice of being able to store data on the stack or on the heap, determining at compile time when memory is no longer needed and can be stored. be cleaned. Unused data is thus cleaned without the programmer having to think about allocating and freeing memory. Hence, enabling efficient memory usage and efficient memory access. Additionally, this feature of not having to run a garbage collection all the time makes Rust projects well suited for use by other programming languages.

On the other hand, Python has a garbage collector that constantly searches for unused memory and cleans it up while the program is running.

2 | Low level language

In addition, direct access to hardware and memory makes Rust the ideal programming language for embedded and bare-metal development. Rust can be used to write low level code. Being a low-level language, Rust is the go-to choice for developers when their resources are limited and ensuring that software doesn’t fail is crucial. On the contrary, the high-level Python language is more suited to rapid prototypes.

3 | Speed

The Python programming language, although commonly used for data analysis, interprets the code line by line, slowing down the process. On the contrary, Rust doesn’t compromise on speed. It offers an advantage in this aspect.

4 | Dynamic and static input

Python is a dynamic type system, which makes it easier for developers to produce software. On the other hand, Rust is a static type system and requires programmers to specify parameters (function arguments and constants), but inside the body of the function it allows for Python-like dynamic typing.

Rust offers a useful feature – Nothing, allowing programmers to handle exceptions at compile time, ensuring that the program runs correctly at the end user.

For example, the following code snippet, Rhea Moutafis demonstrated how a developer can retrieve a person’s full name, whether or not they have a middle name:

fn get_full_name (fname: & str, mname: Option, lname: & str) -> String {

match mname {

Some (n) => format! (“{} {} {}”, Fname, n, lname),

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None => format! (“{} {}”, Fname, lname),

}

}

main fn () {

println! (“{}”, get_full_name (“Ronald”, None, “McDonald”));

println! (“{}”, get_full_name (“Dwight”, Some (“P.”), “Eisenhower”));

}

5 | Applications

Rust is primarily used for game engines, operating systems, file systems, virtual reality simulation engines, and browser components. Python is used for web application development, business applications, and web scraping, among others.

Last year, according to O’Reilly’s annual ranking, Rust reported 94% year-over-year growth in usage. Microsoft experimented with Rust for secure and security-critical software components. More recently, Mozilla announced the creation of the Rust Foundation, to help the programming language continue to grow and prosper. Mozilla used Rust to create Stylo, the CSS engine for Firefox. But will Rust be able to take over the popular Python programming language? Only time will tell.


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Debolina biswas

Debolina biswas

After diving into the ecosystem of Indian startups, Debolina is now a tech journalist. When not writing, she can be found reading or playing with brushes and palette knives. She can be reached at [email protected]


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